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My Working Day

I usually start my day with getting up and doing all things that everybody does in the morning: washing, having breakfast, etc. I also got used to gather my learning tools: pencils, exercise-books, text-books in the morning. Then I usually go to the University. Fortunately, my father takes a car every morning and he often picks me up and drives me to the doors of our University building.

And soon the lectures and lessons begin... We have from 2 to 4 lectures every time, depending on day. I like studying in the University more than in the school because in you can miss some lectures when you study at the University (of course, later you should take a summary from your mate and copy it). So, a student is much more free, than pupil is.

After the lessons I usually come back home where I have dinner and start thinking about my ways of spending the rest of the day. I often go to my friend's place. During the early autumn and summer I often go to the sports ground or to the beach. I also like visiting different sports events, for example, soccer matches of "Luch" in Russian championship. So, the world is full of enjoyable things to do.

On returning home I usually start doing my homework. When I finish it, I read a book it or watch TV. At last, I go bed.

Of course, I would like to tell you more about myself and my working day, but, unfortunately, my time is rather limited and I have got a lot of homework to do.


About myself

My name is ... I am seventeen (sixteen, eighteen). I live in Rostov-on-Don. My address is ... My telephone number is...

I am tall (not very tall, short, middle-sized). I am thin (not very thin, rather fat). My face is round (square, oval). I have a fair (dark) complexion. My forehead is narrow (broad) and low (high). I have a straight (turned up, crooked, aquiline) nose and a protruding (round) chin. My eyebrows are bushy (penciled), my eyelashes are thick (thin) and long (short). I have large (small) blue (hazel, black, grey) eyes. My hair is black (fair, dark, blond, chestnut), straight (curly) and long (short, not very long).

I have just left school and now I am going to enter the University (Institute). I am going to be a teacher (a lawyer). I like my future profession and I am going to do my best to become a good specialist.

I live with my family. It is large (small, not very large) and very good. We love each other very much and always try to help each other and to spend as much time together as we can. I have a lot of friends too.

I am fond of reading and playing computer games. My favourite sport is football (swimming, tennis, hockey). My friends and I often get together to play different games, to go for a walk or to the disco or simply to talk.


Great Britain

The United Kingdom of G.B. and Northern Irelands is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, G.B. and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.

The UK is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. GB consists of England, Scotland and Wales and doesn't include Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands.

There are a lot of rivers in GB, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters if Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and the wrong side out. The English people say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.

The weather is the favorite conversational topic in GB. After they greet each other they start talking about the weather.

The best time of the year in GB is spring (of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world is to stay at home by the fire. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer.

The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities especially in London. The fog spreads everywhere so cars move along slowly and people can't see each other. They try not to be run over by a car but still accidents are frequent in the fog.


London

London is a capital of Great Britain, it is a political, economic and commercial center. It's one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. It's population is about 9 million people.

London is one of the oldest and the most interesting cities of the world.

Traditionally it's divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.

The heart of London is the City. It's a financial and business center. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Not so many people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps, the most striking of them is St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. St. Paul's Cathedral has always been dominated the center of London. It is situated on the site of former Saxon and Norman churches. They were destroyed by the Great Fire and the present building, completed in 1710, is the work of the eminent architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is an architectural masterpiece.

Londoners have a particular affection for St. Paul's, which is the largest Protestant Church in England. It's high dome, containing the remarkable Whispering Gallery, is a prominent landmark towering above the multistoried buildings which line the river-bank.

The Tower of London was one of the first and most impressive castles built after the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Since the times of William 1 various kings have built and extended the Tower of London and used it for many purposes. The Tower has been used as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison, and many famous and infamous people have been executed within it's walls. Now it is a museum. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation. A fine collection of amour is exhibited in the keep.

The security of the Tower is ensured by a military garnison and by the Yeoman Warders or Beefeaters, who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform.

Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.

Westminster Abbey is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. It is founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050. The Abbey was a monastery for along time. The present building dates largely from the times of Henry 3, who began to rebuild the church, a task which lasted nearly 300 years. The West towers were added in the eighteenth century. Since William 1 almost every English monarch has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials of many of Britain's most eminent citizens: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling and etc. One of the greatest treasures of the Abbey is the oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300.

The Abbey is also known for its Poet's Corner. Graves and memorials to many English poets and writers are clustered round about.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey you can see the Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Parliament of the UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consists of just over 1,000 members of the different grades of nobility - dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts and barons. In the House of Commons there are 650 members. They are elected by secret ballot by men and women aged 18 and over. Every Parliament is divided into Sessions. Each of these may last a year and usually begins early in November. The Clock Tower, which contains the hour-bell called Big Ben, is known the world over. The bell is named after Sir Benjamin Hall.

Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical center of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.

On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, ets, and is famous for its library.

The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, work-shops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families.


The USA

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.

The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270 million.

If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.

America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.

The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.

Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.

The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.

The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines.


Australia

The land of blue mountains.

The Great Barrier Reef on the coast of Queensland is a garden under the sea. There are 1,400 different kinds of fish, and more than 300 kinds of coral. Tropical fruit and flowers grow on the beautiful islands. It's not surprising that more holiday-makers come to Queensland every year.

Tasmania, the island south of Australia, is small. It's the same size as England. It is also very different from the other states. There are no deserts in Tasmania. It often rains, both in winter and summer. Only a half of million people live in Tasmania, and a large part of the island is still covered with wild, beautiful wild forests. These forests are full of wonderful flowers and interesting animals.

In the Northern Territory you will find the red heart of Australia. And it really is red, with red rocks, red sand, and red skies in the evening. Every year, thousands of tourists visit Ayers Rock and a strange group of huge red stones called "the Olgas". But these places are also holy to the Aboriginals. They believe that the land itself has life.

Sydney is the best known place in New South Wales. In fact, it's the best known place in Australia. But New South Wales has more than cities. There are, for example, the Blue Mountains. They are covered with forests of blue colored eucalyptus trees. The air above the forest contains millions of microscopic drops of eucalyptus oil. When the sun shines, the air of the Blue Mountains is a real, beautiful blue.

Less than a hundred years ago, there was nothing except sheep in Canberra. But then Australians decided to build a capital city.. The work began in 1913. Now, Canberra is an international city, full of diplomats and government offices. It's beautiful place, with parks, lakes, big open streets and fine buildings.

Australia is sometimes called "the lucky country". One reason is the wonderful riches under the earth: gold, silver, iron, coal and many precious metals. The Bass Strait, of the coast of Victoria, has been one of the country's biggest oil fields for many years.

South Australia is the driest of all the states, but it does have Murrey River. The river brings greenness and life to the south-east corner. In the early of the Australian history, the Murrey River was South Australia's main road. Before real roads and railways came, the river carried people and goods from the east up into the country. Some towns on the Murrey still keep the old river boats, and visitors can ride on them.

There are two kinds of gold in Western Australia. First, there's real kind - the kind that comes out of the ground. Gold was found in Kalgoorlie in1893, and the "Golden Mile" was for a time the most expensive piece of land in the world. Kalgorlie still exports some gold, but new gold of Western Australia is wheat. Big farms grow millions of tones of wheat every year, and wheat has become Australia's second biggest export.


Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. It covers the northern part of North America and its total area is 9,975,000 square kilometers. Canada's only neighbour is the USA. The border between the two countries is the longest unguarded border in the world.

Canada's motto, "From Sea to Sea," is particularly appropriate because the country is bounded by three oceans - the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. Its vast area includes some of the world's largest lakes and countless smaller ones. One-third of all fresh water on Earth is in Canada.

Canada's name comes from an Indian word kanata, which means "village". The first French settlers used the Indian name for the colony, but the official name was "New France". When the area came under the British rule in 1897, the new country was called the Dominion of Canada, or simply Canada. Canada is a union of ten provinces and two territories.

Compared with other large countries, Canada has a small population, only about 27,300,000. The country, however, is one of the world's most prosperous. Canadians developed its rich natural resources and, in the process, have achieved a high standard of living.

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and Queen Elizabeth II is its official head of state. Although the Queen holds this high position, she doesn't rule. She serves as a symbol of British tradition. Her representative in Canada is the Governor General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. The Governor's duties are limited to symbolic, mostly ceremonial acts.

The real power belongs to the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Canadian Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the Senate.

There are two official languages in the country: English and French. All Canadian children have to learn both French and English at school, but Francophones and Anglophones do not enjoy learning each other's language.

"We have two races, two languages, two systems of religious belief, two sets of laws ... two systems of everything," said one Canadian journalist.

There was a time when Quebec Province (its population is 90% French) decided to separate from Canada and form a new country. Fortunately, the movement has waned.

The capital of Canada is Ottawa.


My Hobby

A "hobby" is a special interest or activity that you do in your time off. Some people have animals as hobbies. They keep rabbits, or go fishing. They train dogs to do tricks, or keep pigeons to race and carry messages. Some are crazy about plants. They try to grow cacti or rare tropical flowers in their kitchens and sitting rooms. Others are mad about their car or their motorbike. They spend their Saturdays and Sundays washing them, painting them, or buying new bits and pieces to make them go even faster. Children and teenagers are great collectors. They collect stamps, or postcards or matchboxes, or pictures of a favourite footballer or pop star. Many people make things as a hobby. Some teach themselves at home, but a lot of people go to evening classes at their local college. Just look under letter B in a list of London or New York evening classes and you'll find: Ballet, Batik, Bengali, Body building, Breadmaking and Byzantium. But not everyone goes to evening classes to learn about his special interest. No one helped these people to do what they did. A "hobby" is usually something that a person does alone. But American (and British) families sometimes like to do things together, too. American families often have quite a lot of money to spend on their recreation. They can all enjoy their holiday home or their boot somewhere in the country away from home. Americans love to get out of town into the wild. And many go for holidays or long weekends to the one of the thirty-five fabulous national parks. These magnificent areas of countryside include tropical forests, high mountains, dry deserts, long sandy coasts. Grassy prairies and wooded mountains are full of wild animals. The idea of these parks, which cover 1% of the whole area of the USA is to make "a great breathing place for the national lungs", and to save different parts of the land as they were before the human appeared. There are camping places in the national parks, boat trips and evening campfire meetings. Americans really enjoy new "gadgets", especially new ways of traveling. But Americans do not only spend their free time having fun. They are very interested in culture too. Millions of them enjoy writing, painting and music, and at weekends visiting museums, art galleries and concert halls.P>


Sport

The British are known to be great sport lovers. When they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of games we play now have come from Britain.

One of the most popular British game is cricket. Summer isn't summer without cricket. But the game, which attracts the greatest attention, is football, or soccer. There are plenty of professional clubs all over Britain. A lot of people are interested in racing and risk their money on the horse-races. A great number of people are fond of playing tennis. Indeed, in one form or another, sport is an essential part of daily life in Britain.

Many sports are popular in Russia. For example : hockey, soccer, weightlifting, track & field, tennis, basketball, volleyball, boxing, figure-skating, swimming, judo & shooting.

The Russians are not only sports fans. They take an active part in all sports activities. It's been a tradition in this country to divide sport into professional & amateur. There are different sport societies & clubs in Russia.

There are many stadiums & public sport facilities in Russia. Numerous national and international matches & competitions are regularly held in Russia. They attract a large number of fans. Most of important games are televised. Thousands of fans go to the stadiums to support their favorite team & thousands prefer to watch games on TV. But watching sports events & going in for sports are two different things.

There is no need to speak about the importance of sports & games. They must become a part of your daily life. Sport helps people to stay in good shape, helps them to be fit, healthy. Some people go in for sports for pleasure and relaxation.

So sport attracts a lot of people. Some of them are members of sporting clubs. You may choose any kind of sport you prefer and enjoy it.

As for me, I go to the swimming pool, because it's good for my health and it makes me feel happy.


Sports and Games

People all over the world are fond of sports and games. That is one thing in which people of every nationality and class are united.

The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow-skating, skiing and tobogganing. Some people enjoy figure-skating and ski-jumping.

Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many other sports. Among outdoor games football takes the first place in public interest. This game is played in all the countries of the world. The other favorite games in different countries are golf, tennis, cricket, volleyball, basketball and so on. Badminton is also very popular.

A lot of girls and women go in for callisthenics.

Among indoor games the most popular are billiards, table tennis, draughts and some others, but the great international game is chess. The results of chess tournaments are studied and discussed by thousands of enthusiasts in different countries.

So we may say that sport is one of the things that makes all people kin.


Health

When we are ill, we call a doctor, and he examines us and diagnoses the illness. When we have a headache, a stomach ache, a sore throat, a cold, or a pain in some parts of the body, we call a doctor. He takes our temperature and our pulse. He examines our heart, our lungs, our stomach or the part where we have pain, and tells us what the matter with us is. The doctor prescribes medicine, and gives us a prescription, which we take to the chemist's, who makes up the medicine.

If you follow the doctor's orders, you'll get better; if you disobey the doctor, you may get worse, and even die. We must obey the doctor, if we want to get better. If we have a temperature, we must stay in bed and take the medicine he prescribes. If we cannot get better at home we must go to the hospital.

If we are too ill to walk, we go to hospital in the ambulance. After our illness we can go to a sanatorium until we are strong again.

When we have toothache, we go to the dentist's. He examines our teeth, finds the tooth which hurts us, stops or extracts it.

Now here in Russia health system incorporates a variety of medical institutions. The medical service in Russia is of two kinds. Some state establishments give their employees medical insurance cards. They guarantee the people free of charge medical assistance. Some medical establishments charge fees for treatment. They may be rather high, but our medical service now uses all modern equipment and medicines and provides qualified medical help to all people.


Travelling

Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.

Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like to spend a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.

Most travelers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds.

Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had.

People travel by train, by plane, by boat and by car.

All means of transport have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.

If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own territory.


British traditions and customs

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are a lot of customs you can enjoy. Some of them are very old games or plays. There is the Marbles Championship, where the British Champion is crowned; he wins a silver cup known among folk dancers is Morris Dancing, where people in beautiful clothes with ribbons and bells on them dance to traditional music with handkerchiefs or big sticks.

A completely different style is the Boat Race on the river Thames, which is often held on Eastern Sunday. A boat with a team from Oxford university and the other one with a team from Cambridge University hold a race.

The British think that the Grand National is the most exciting horse race in the world. It is at the Aintree Race Course, near Liverpool, every year. Sometimes it takes place on the same day as the Boat Race, sometimes a week later. Amateur riders as well as professional jockeys can take part in it. It is famous because the jumps are very high and the course is very long.

If you don't like boat racing you won't have to stay at home on Easter Sunday. You can go Egg-rolling: go to Avenham Park, with a hard boiled egg - it will look nicer if you paint it. Take it to the top of the hill in Avenham Park - as you won't be alone there that day just follow the other people - and roll it down. That's it!!! If your egg doesn't break the 1st time you can do it again.

May 1st isn't a public holiday in Britain, but the 1st Monday after it is. There are many May Day Celebrations, especially in the country. People erect a maypole then, a tall pole with ribbons hanging from the top. Young children dance round it, holding the ribbons. Teenage girls sometimes enter for the May Queen competition.

Halloween is a day on which many children dress up in unusual costumes. The day was originally called All Halloween's Eve, because it fell on October 31, the eve of all Saint's Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween.

"Remember, remember the 5th of November" are the words of an old English song. Why? Because in 1605, a man called Guy Fawkes had planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill king James 1st on that day (the king was to open Parliament then). But Guy Fawkes was caught and hanged. And still the British remember Guy Fawkes' Night or Bonfire Night. From early October you can see children with figures (called 'guys') made of sacks and straw and dressed in old clothes. The children say: "Penny for the Guy"- and with the money they collect in this way they buy fireworks. On November the 5th the children put their 'Guy' on the bonfire, burn it, and light their fireworks.

At the end of the year there are the famous New Year celebrations. In London many people go to Trafalgar Square on New Year's Eve. There is singing and dancing and at 12 o'clock on December 31st - or should we say January 1st? - they all sing the famous song "Auld Lang Syne".

A popular Scottish event is the Edinburgh Festival of music and drama.


American Holidays

There are a number of holidays in the USA which are celebrated every year. Here are some of them.

The 1st of January is New Year's Day. People go to bed after midnight on the 31st of December. They like to see "the old year out and the new year in".

Memorial Day, or Decoration Day, is dedicated to those who fought in the War of Independence, in World War I or in World War II.

The 4th of July is Independence Day. It is the biggest national holiday in the USA. The Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, when the American colonies were fighting for independence against England.

On the 11th of November there is Veteran's Day. It is dedicated to those who fell in the two World Wars.

Thanksgiving Day is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. In the autumn of 1621, the Pilgrim Fathers celebrated their first harvest festival in America and called it Thanksgiving Day. Since that time it has been celebrated every year.

Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. People usually stay at home at Christmas time, and spend the day with their families.


Environmental Protection

We all love our native land, beautiful nature with its blue lakes and rivers, thick forests, with its animal and plant kingdom. We are children of nature and we must be very careful in usage of natural resources.

People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on different continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun, on animals and plants around them. Our ecology becomes worse and worse with every new day. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make furniture. They forget that people can't leave without trees and plants, because they fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population and animals destruction. The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most our rubbish go into big holes in the ground, called 'dumps'. But dumps are very dangerous for our life 'cause they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. And the seas are in danger too. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste. The Mediterranean is already nearly died: the North sea is following. If nothing is done about it one day nothing will be able to live in seas. Every ten minutes one kind of animal or plant dies out forever.

Of course, people can't stay indifferent to these problems. There a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. One of them is Greenpeace. Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. We must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must take care of nature, because we are the part of it.

People begin to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organizations and green parties. If governments wake up to what is happening - perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.


Seasons

Winter, spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year. December, January and February are winter months. In winter the weather is cold, usually it snows. The days are short and the nights are long. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can go skating and skiing. March, April and May are spring months. It is very nice season. The weather is fine enough. There are many green trees in the streets, in the parks and in the yards. Sometimes it rains but usually the sun shines brightly. The birds return from the hot countries and make their nests. June, July and August are summer months. It is hot or warm in summer. The days are long and the nights are short. There are many nice flowers in the parks and squares in the summer. The pupils do not go to school they have the summer holidays. June is the first month of summer. We have the longest day and the shortest night in the year on the 21st-22nd of June. July is the middle month of summer. It is the hottest month of summer. The sky is blue and cloudless. August is the last summer month. Sometimes it is cold in August. It is many mushrooms, berries and fruits. September, October and November are autumn months. The weather is changeable. It often rains. You can see yellow, red, brown leaves everywhere. It is time for gathering the harvest.


Climate and Nature of Great Britain

CLIMATE

The climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture to Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid.

British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather."

The weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in Britain. When two Englishmen are introduced to each other, if they can't think of any thing else to talk about, they talk about weather. When two people meet in the street they will often say something about weather as they pass, just to show their friendliness.

Every daily paper publishes a weather forecast. Both the radio and television give the weather forecast several times each day.

The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when in rains all day long. Sometimes it rains so heavily that they say "It's raining cats and dogs".

Rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. In the mountains there is heavier rainfall then in the plains of the south and east. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 15 to 23 degrees above zero. During a normal summer the temperature sometimes rises above 30 degrees in the south. Winter temperatures below 10 degrees are rare. It seldom snows heavily in winter, the frost is rare. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes. Droughts are rare.

So, we may say that the British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly. In winter the cold is humid cold, not the dry one.

This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring.

In the British homes there has been no central heating up till recently. The fireplaces are often used. but the coal is not used as it's very expensive. Britain has no good coal now and imports it itself. Many schools and universities have no central heating either, and the floors there are made of stone. The British bedroom is especially cold, sometimes electric blankets or hotwater bottles are used.


My future profession

What I would like to become? This question agitates me greatly. Every job has its difficulties. I think that nearly all the professions are very important in life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult, because we must take in consideration many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same time we must satisfy the requirements of our society. The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or mill, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest are offered in the sphere of the services transport, communications and many others. I would like to became a programmist. I like this profession because it very interestin.


My plans for the future

When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It's not an easy task to make right choice. You can start working or continue studying to receive a higher education. There is one institute or a few institutes is nearly every Russian city. There are dozens of them in Moscow and St. Petersburg. If you want to get a professional training you can enter a technical college. There are over 2000 professions to choose and make a decision.

To choose a future profession is a dilemma for all family. Fathers usually wants their children to follow their footsteps. Mothers don't want their sons and daughters to leave the native town. So they persuade kids to enter local colleges and universities.

Because of the wide difference in jobs, you should find out all you can about any job which interests you. This can be done by going to the library and by reading widely, and also by talking to adults who have different kinds of jobs. You also need to think about how well you can do what you would like to do.

Some follow their parents advice and some follow their own choice.

To make the right choice you should consider your traits and characters. To become a good doctor you must be patient, easygoing and kind. The teacher's work requires love for children, profound knowledge of subjects and the ability to explain. Detective's job is very stressful. He must be brave, fair and strong.

A couple of years ago I wanted to become a doctor. I thought it was a very noble profession. I was good at biology at the 8 and 9 forms. I wanted to help people who had problems with their health. I know that a doctor should be noble in work and life, kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. A doctor who is selfish and dishonest can't be good at his profession. I tried to do my best to develop good traits in myself.

Now I have already decided what to do. I'd like to be a teacher. I know that it is very difficult to be a good teacher. You should know perfectly the subject you teach, you must be well-educated and well-informed. A good teacher develops in his students a desire for knowledge. Teaching must be the greatest of all the arts. It is a great responsibility to educate the children. I think that's the reason why teachers are deeply respected.

More and more people realize that every educated person should know a foreign language. That is why I'm going to become an English teacher. I will try to enter the department of foreign languages at the University.

You study 5 years at Russian universities. After your final exams you are a qualified teacher of English. University education is deep and many-sided. Some students like a post-graduate course to follow an academic career. I know that a teacher's job is quite difficult. A teacher can't say that he knows everything in his field. He goes on learning his subject during all his career to be able to answer any question. He should be an example of competence.

So choosing a career and getting a job are two of the most important things, any person does in his lifetime. If we don't think about the future, we won't have it.


Books

There is nothing more wonderful than books. We learn many things by reading books. They make the world larger for us. They tell us how great and wonderful man is. Books expand the boundaries of the familiar world for us.

Books stir up our imagination, fill up our minds with the new ideas, fill our life with great expectations of joy and happiness, they develop our intellect. Some books arouse our interest, delight, feelings of curiosity and admiration, some make us think which is very important and demand great erudition on the part of the readers, some entertain, amuse us giving pleasure and delight. We can read some books and stories for laughing and some dramas and romances for tears. Books arouse different emotions in us; they penetrate deep into our souls and hearts. We love and suffer, feel sympathy or indignation, cry or laugh, struggle and reach success together with the characters of the books. Books have a great impact on our characters. We are influenced by good examples, they add to moulding of our characters and forming our moral values. Books give food for our mind and warmth for our soul. We should love books as they are the sources of knowledge and can make us strong, intelligent, well educated.

There are different kinds of books, which appeal to different kinds of readers. There are science-fiction and fantasy stories, detective and spy stories, tales and fairy-tales, books about animals and nature, adventure books and books about travels, humorous stories, historical dramas, biographies and autobiographies, essays. It's so nice to read poems which gradually are unfolding and revealing their rich inner self, as one reads them again and over again.

Reading is like a great adventure for me. Starting a book is always a real thrill and I want the writer to carry me off to new unknown places I've never been to before, to get acquainted with new people.

There are so many different books by different writers, but only few of them become our favourites. Why? Because all books are divisible into two classes: the books of the hour and the books of all time. It's my strong belief that much depends on the author's skill with language, his manner of writing. In my opinion, if the author possesses an ability to portray life very truthfully and convincingly, if he depicts his character so vividly that people immediately recognize themselves, if he describes nature, events, people with love and understanding, if he has an ability to make people laugh or cry, his books will certainly appeal to many readers, they will enjoy the popularity, they will become the books of all time. It goes without saying that each author has his own peculiarities of writing.

TV, computer, audio-visual instruments in general are all gradually taking over what used to be the domain of literature. But I don't think that reading is dying, that reading is a vanishing custom, that books will excite people, they will give keen delight and pleasure, they will create a special mood, because a book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives us a unique chance to link up with the authors who lived hundreds of years ago. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different centuries. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feeling. It gives us an insight not only into the past, but also into the future. The book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up